Additionally, another exception occurred while executing the custom error page for the first exception. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy (damage of the retina) caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. What class of medication is plaquenil Chloroquine blood plasma ratio Chloroquine is used for Chloroquine phosphate tablets side effects Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. Retina Manifestations of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity. The classical definition of chloroquine toxicity is characterized by bilateral pigmentary change of the macula usually sparing the fovea. This has come to be known as bull’s-eye maculopathy. The retinal periphery may also be involved but infrequently. The dosage of chloroquine usually ranges between 100 and 500 mg/day. Side effects are minimal at low doses, while many more toxic effects occur at higher doses, such as visual disturbances, gastrointestinal upset, electrocardiographic changes, headache, and pruritus. The risk of toxicity is low for individuals without complicating conditions during the first 5 years of treatment using less than 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine or 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine, and/or cumulative doses of less than 1000 gram and 460 gram (total dose), respectively. This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. Toxic dose of chloroquine Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses, Hydroxchloroquine and Chloroquine Toxicity Hydroxychloroquine is associated with macular damage rash and diarrhea Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and Recommendations.. Chloroquine in Cancer Therapy A Double-Edged Sword of Autophagy.. Chloroquine poisoning • LITFL • Clinical Case Tox Conundrum. Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best. There is no evidence that chloroquine is harmful in prophylactic doses during pregnancy. Because of the susceptibility of pregnant women to falciparum malaria, it should be used at the recommended dosage for both prophylaxis and treatment wherever chloroquine-sensitive malaria is prevalent. Adverse effects We have read with interest the article on retinal toxic reaction secondary to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine use, finding it to be both comprehensive and informative.1 Of particular interest were the data on drug dosage calculation for actual and lean body weight and the use of novel methods of.